Two-sided manual machining method for three-axis CNC milling machine for small and medium-sized enterprises

Royke Vincentius Febriyana, Ramadhan S. Pernyata, Dita Andansari


Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have a big role in Indonesian economic development. The government has set four strategies in an effort to boost Indonesian economic development. One of the four strategies mentions the SMEs, and the other mentions the use of 4.0 technology. Working capital has been the main issue need to be considered in the SMEs. Thus, the affordability must be considered in the use of 4.0 technology in SMEs. One of the 4.0 technologies that are possible to be used in the SMEs is a three-axis milling machine. One of the limitations of the machine is that it cannot do the back-side machining process. The paper examines the possibility of manual back-side machining on the three-axis milling machine without adding a rotary axis. Four methods were conducted by adding two-point markings on the x-axis, two-point markings on the y-axis, four-point markings on the x- and y-axis, and four-point markings on the x- and y-axis plus a series of offsetting processes. After conducting several qualitative observations and measurements on the mismatched position of the front and the back machining, and also analyzing the problems that emerged during the processes of the four different methods, it is concluded that adding four points markings on the x- and y-axis plus doing a series of offsetting processes is the best method to have two-sided manual machining with three-axis computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine.


computer numerical control (CNC); small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); three-axis; two-sided machining.

Full Text:



D. Ryfors, M. Wallin, and T. Truve, “Swedish manufacturing SMEs readiness for Industry 4.0,” Bachelor Thesis, Sweden: Jönköping University, 2019.

M. Eriksson and O. Ekebring, “Managing a transformation towards industry 4.0: A study within the bus manufacturing industry,” Industrial Management Degree Project, Sweden: Karlstads Universitet, 2020.

D. Awari, M. Bhamare, A. Ghanwat, K. Jadhav, and J. Chahande, “Methodology for Selecting Components for Fabricating CNC Milling Machine for Small Scale Industry,” International Journal for Scientific Research and Development (IJSRD), vol. 4(11), pp. 168-171, 2017.

S. Vaidya, P. Ambad, and S. Bhosle, “Industri 4.0 – A Glimpse,”. Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 20, pp. 233-238, 2018.

B. Jayachandraiah, O. V. Krishna, P. A. Khan, and R. A. Reddy, “Fabrication of Low Cost 3-Axis Cnc Router,” International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI), vol. 3(6), pp. 1-10, Jun. 2014.

W. Qin, “Design and Analysis of a Small-scale Cost-effective CNC Milling Machine,” Thesis, Illinois: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2013.

N. Sathyakumar, K. P. Balaji, R. Ganapathi, and S. R. Pandian, “A Build-Your-Own Three Axis CNC PCB Milling Machine,” in Proc. IConAMMA, 2018, pp. 24404–24413.

P. Bhasin, P. Singh, and S. Singh, “Design and Fabrication of Low-Cost Wood Working Mini CNC Milling Machine for Students Skill Development,” International Journal of Advance Research and nnovation (IJARI), vol. 8(1), pp. 30-33, Mar. 2020.

P. Girhe, S. Yenkar, and A. Chirde, “Arduino Based Cost Effective CNC Plotter Machine,” International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Engineering Research (IJETER), vol. 6(2), pp. 6-9, Feb. 2018.

S. Patil and S. S. Anasane, “Development of 3-Axis Micro-Step Resolution Desktop CNC Stage for Machining of Meso- and Microscale-Features,” in Advances in Simulation, Product Design and Development (AIMTDR), Springer, 2018, pp. 637-652.

Ernest, H. Sutanto, and D. Setyanto, “CNC Milling Portable PM 1035,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), vol. 13(12), pp. 10358-10364, 2018.

S. M. Ali and H. Mohsin, “Design and Fabrication of 3-Axes Mini CNC Milling Machine,” presented at the 1st International Conference on Sustainable Engineering and Technology (INTCSET), Baghdad, Iraq. 2020.

R. Ginting, S. Hadiyoso, and S. Aulia, “Implementation 3-Axis

CNC Router for Small Scale Industry,” International Journal of Applied Engineering Research (IJAER), vol. 12(17), pp. 6553-6558, 2017.

A. Estiyono, A. Kurniawan, and A. D. Krisbianto, “Prototipe mesin CNC 3 axis sederhana untuk IKM mainan edukasi berbahan kayu,” Jurnal Desain IDEA, vol. 17(2), pp. 17-20, Oct. 2018.

K. Bangse, A. Wibolo, and I. K. E. H. Wiryanta, “Design and fabrication of a CNC router machine for wood engraving,” presented at the International Conference on Applied Science and Technology on Engineering Science (iCAST-ES), Bali, Indonesia, 2019.

S. H. Suh, W. S. Jih, H. D. Hong, and D. H. Chung, “Sculptured surface machining of spiral bevel gears with CNC milling,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 41(6), pp. 833-850, May 2001.

S. Suh and J. Lee, "Five-Axis Part Machining With Three-Axis CNC Machine and Indexing Table," ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 120(1), pp. 120–128, Feb. 1998.

D. A. Axinte, S. A. Shukor, and A. T. Bozdana, “An analysis of the functional capability of an in-house developed miniature 4-axis machine tool,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 50(2), pp. 191-203, Feb. 2010.

E. E. Wai and S. S. Aung, “Design and Implementation of 4-Axis CNC Machine,” International Journal of Recent Innovations in Academic Research, vol. 3(8), pp. 60-71, Aug. 2019.

L. N. L. de Lacalle, A. Lamikiz, J. A. Sánchez, and M. A. Salgado, “Effects of tool deflection in the high-speed milling of inclined surfaces,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 24, pp. 621-631, Nov. 2004.

S. N. Phokobye, I. A. Daniyan, I. Tlhabadira, L. Masu, and L. R. VanStaden, “Model Design and Optimization of Carbide Milling Cutter for Milling Operation of M200 Tool Steel,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 84, pp. 954-959, 2019.

S. Hu, M. Zhang, Y. Cui, R. Xue, and Z. Yang, “Accuracy Enhancement with Processing Error Prediction and Compensation of a CNC Flame Cutting Machine Used in Spatial Surface Operating Conditions,” Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences, vol. 49(1), pp. 75-94, Apr. 2017.

M. Soori, B. Arezoo, and M. Habibi, “Accuracy analysis of tool deflection error modelling in prediction of milled surfaces by a virtual machining system,” International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, vol. 55(4), pp. 308-321, Aug. 2017.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.